Citrus "three sparse and changed" technical standards

1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements for removing (towing) dense orange trees, pruning large branches, thinning fruit, and increasing organic fertilizers during citrus cultivation.
This standard is applicable to the high quality and high yield cultivation techniques of citrus rich production period.
2 Citation Criteria The clauses contained in the following standards are incorporated into this standard and constitute the provisions of this standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards will be revised and all parties using this standard should explore the possibility of using the latest version of the following standards.
GB6868-86 pruning shears
GB7172-86 hand saw
3 Definitions This standard uses the following definitions.
3.1 The main branch refers to the large branch derived from the main branch.
3.2 Vice main branch refers to the larger branch that branches out from the main branch and vice main branch.
3.3 Lateral branches refer to the branches derived from the main branches and vice main branches and bearing the results and renewal.
3.4 The thickness of the green leaf layer refers to the thickness of the relatively dense part of the leaf between the lower part of the canopy and the top part.
3.5 Canopy coverage refers to the ratio of crown projection area to garden area.
3.6 Smears Wipe off or cut off buds.
3.7 Topping off the young part of the vegetative shoot.
3.8 Sparse Cut excessively dense branches from the base.
3.9 Sparse branch pruning Excessively dense main branch, minor branch or larger side branch is sawed out from the base.
3.10 Percentage of leaf punches compared to the number of canopy leaves and results.
3.11 The period of full fruit period from the period of high economic stability until the initial stage of continuous decline of production.
4 sparse (cutting) dense orange trees
4.1 Dredging (cutting) targets 840 lowland plants per hectare in hilly hills and 630 or more planned dense planting or dense planting gardens per hectare. When the canopy coverage rate is ≥ 75%, the dense orange trees should be gradually removed. (or thinning).
4.2 Dredging (cutting) method According to the topography and topography of the garden and the way of planting, it adopts septum, interlaced or plum-shaped method to remove (or thinning) dense orange trees.
4.3 Evacuation time
From late February to mid-March.
4.4 Dredging Technology
4.4.1 Pre-pruning Pruning The tree crown should be properly pruned before removing, and the more upright branches that have moved upward are sawed out, and the dense upper and lower branches in the middle and upper parts are removed in combination with plastic surgery. The amount of pruning is about 1/3-1/2 of the amount of the crown leaves.
4.4.2 Removal Method Open the ring groove along the dripping line of the crown of the transplanted tree after pruning. Protect the horizontal roots and fibrous roots when the ditch is dredged. When digging below the dense layer of the root, empty the subsoil to the trunk and cut off the vertical. Roots, then cut the roots of the cuts, then use a woven cloth or straw to wrap the roots with mud. The bundled transplanted trees are transported to the planting hole that has been excavated in advance and applied with sufficient basal fertilizer and 1-1.5 mg of calcium, magnesium, phosphate fertilizer. The dressing is unwrapped, the root system is stretched, and the soil is layered and backfilled. The soil is compacted, and after the backfill, the grafting interface still has to be exposed. Then the tree is fixed with a triangular support and then poured with water.
4.4.3 Management after migration. In the event of a sunny day within one month after the move, water once every 5-7 days; crown spray is beneficial to restore tree vigor and promote rooting of nutrients or growth regulators, once every 10-15 days , spray 2-3 times. Remove all flower buds of the year Other managements are performed according to the requirements of citrus vegetative growth period in DB33/T69-93.
4.5 Thinning The sawing tree was sawn from the base, leaving no stumps or roots removed.
4.6 Precautions
4.6.1 Transplanting techniques may be adopted for trees within 10 years after the planting, and thinning is generally more than 10 years old.
4.6.2 With the planned increase in the density of planting in the dense planting garden, the year of transplanting or thinning should be adopted earlier.
4.6.3 The canopy left over from thinning can be used to promote the opening of the canopy over the erected permanent tree.
5 sparse branch pruning
5.1 Pruning The garden canopy can be pruned with large branches when the tree canopies grow dark and the dead branches are increased. When the result is severely moved upwards, or when the shoot overlaps between the crowns.
5.2 Trim time
From late February to mid-March.
5.3 Trimming Technology
5.3.1 Ordinary Round Trim First remove from the base of the crown or culprit, grow more upright main branch or pay main branch. After sawing off the main branch or paying the main branch, the crown is covered with a cover. The larger side branch can be removed from the upper part of the canopy in different directions to make the canopy wavy.
5.3.2 Planning the pruning of close planting gardens Look at the garden and determine the permanent tree and the tree to be removed. Planned sparse tree When the crossover of a permanent branch overlaps with the permanent branch and affects the normal growth of the permanent tree, the main branch, sub main branch or larger side branch of the planned sparse tree that affects the permanent tree is sawn from the base. except. The permanent tree is executed according to the method of 5.3.1. As the permanent tree canopy is enlarged, the tree-crown can be pruned year after year to reduce the tree canopy. When the planned tree production is less than 1/3 of the permanent tree output, it is thinned.
5.4 Precautions
5.4.1 The pruning of large branches should be based on the condition of the canopy. Each year, 1-3 main branches or main branches are sawed out. Large trees, multiple flower trees cut more, young trees, low-yield trees cut less, annual pruning amount accounts for about 10-20% of the total amount of leaves.
5.4.2 For buds that have germinated in the lower part of the crown after pruning, depending on the site of growth, the buds that can be used for expanding the crown or cultivating into the next year's branch can be retained, and the rest can be erased.
5.4.3 clear large branches sparse branches timely.
6 thinning fruit
6.1 The fruit thinning time begins when the second physiological fruit drop of the tree tangerine is basically completed, and is divided into two parts and is basically completed in early September.
According to the species:
Hu Youpiao, early-maturing Wenzhou Mi Mandarin, navel orange, the first thinning of fruit from the end of June to the beginning of July, the second thinning fruit in late August.
崭獭 3. 偈煳 偈煳 菝鄹蹋谝 菝鄹蹋谝 菝鄹蹋谝 菝鄹蹋谝 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫 韫.
6.2 The amount of fruit thinning (fruit setting)
6.2.1 Determine the amount of retained fruit according to the planned production per unit area and the required grade fruit rate.
The amount of fruit left is calculated according to the following formula:
A: The average fruit weight of one grade A%: The proportion of primary fruits in the total production
B: Average fruit weight of secondary fruits B%: Total secondary fruits
C: Quantity of fruit set D: Output per unit area of ​​plan
6.2.2 Refer to the leaf-fruit ratio. Check the leaf-fruit ratio when the fruit is thinning or thinning, and thinning the fruit if it is relatively small.
The preferred leaf (normal leaf) fruit ratio of the main varieties is:
Hu Youya: 60-80:1
Precocious Satsuma Mandarin: 30-35:1
Late mature Wenzhou mandarin: 25-30:1
Navel orange: 70-90: 1
6.3 Thinning Methods
6.3.1 For the first time, remove the fruit and fruit, malformed fruit, and pods. 3. The rim 菝鄹 菝鄹 ∮ 2.5cm. The diameter of the fruit of Huyou and early-harvest mandarin oranges is less than 3.0cm. 4cm small fruit.
6.3.2 The second time, basically according to the fruit retention criteria, continue to remove the pests and fruit, malformed fruit, wind pod fruit, sunburn fruit, rough skin and large fruit and excess fruit.
6.4 Precautions
6.4.1 The amount of thinning fruit should be adjusted according to the cultivation conditions of the orchard, the age of the trees, and the size of the canopy. Varieties with high fruit trees and high fruit setting rates can be sparse. The young trees and low-yield trees can be sparsely or only pests removed. Fruit, malformed fruit.
6.4.2 崭獭 (10) rims (2) 瓿鹊 颐艿 颐艿 颐艿 颐艿 韫 韫 韫 韫 肟啬ㄏ 肟啬ㄏ 肟啬ㄏ 肟啬ㄏ 肟啬ㄏ 肟啬ㄏ 肟啬ㄏ
7 increase organic fertilizer
7.1 Fertilizer objects Due to the partial application of chemical fertilizers, orange trees suffer from malnutrition, soil is thin, organic matter content is low, and the orange orchards have not been deep-turned into soil for many years.
7.2 Organic Fertilizer Consumption During the fruit period, the organic fertilizer application rate in the orange orchard accounts for 35-40% of the total annual fertilizing amount, and is periodically deep-turned and soil-changed every 1-2 years.
7.3 Fertilizer Application Fruit Fertilizer: Strong Fruit Fertilizer from Late June to Mid-July: Fruit Fertilizer from Mid-August to Mid-September: One Month After Harvest of Citrus
7.4 Fertilization, deep-turning and soil-changing methods are performed according to 8.3 and 8.4 of DB33/T169.3-93
7.5 Precautions When organic fertilizer is used to set fruit fertilizer and strong fruit fertilizer, fast-acting organic fertilizer such as cooked cake fertilizer, barium fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer or bio-organic compound fertilizer should be used.

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